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Ekatja Mhill
Ekatja Mhill

Aged Indian

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Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in India, and representative studies of middle-aged and older Indian adults have been lacking. Our objectives were to estimate the proportions of hypertensive adults who had been diagnosed, took antihypertensive medication, and achieved control in the middle-aged and older Indian population and to investigate the association between access to healthcare and hypertension management.

Citation: Lee J, Wilkens J, Meijer E, Sekher TV, Bloom DE, Hu P (2022) Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control and their association with healthcare access in the middle-aged and older Indian population: A nationwide cohort study. PLoS Med 19(1): e1003855.

Data from this nationally representative sample of adults aged 45 years and older in India indicate that slightly more than half (55.7%) of hypertensive individuals had been diagnosed, less than 2 in 5 (38.9%) took medication, and less than one-third (31.7%) achieved BP control. Therefore, the highest absolute losses to care occurred at the awareness stage (45.3 percentage points) and treatment stage (16.8 percentage points). This highlights a particular need for interventions that focus on awareness and treatment. Consistent with recent findings [28], we found substantial variation in hypertension management across socioeconomic groups, sexes, and geographic areas, calling for targeting of interventions for those currently lagging behind.

To our knowledge, this is the largest nationally representative study of the middle-aged and older Indian population (N = 72,262) to date to assess hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and control. As our sample represents adults aged 45 years and older both in the country overall and in each state and union territory, we were able to examine the hypertension care cascade at the national and state levels. The large sample size also allowed us to investigate subpopulation-level differences. Evidence showing where in the hypertension care process individuals were lost to care and how this was associated with access to healthcare provides important insights for designing appropriate interventions to improve BP control.

The country as a whole, however, still lags behind more developed countries. For example, Marshall and colleagues [32] reported that hypertension awareness among American and English adults aged 50 years and older was 84% and 76%, respectively, more than 20 percentage points higher than in India. However, the rates in our data resembled those of Chinese adults aged 45 years and older with hypertension, which were 57% for men and 59% for women [33].

Total 22 strict anaerobic bacteria isolates were obtained from human fecal samples from three healthy volunteers. These bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Different bacterial species were isolated from different aged individuals with infant showing the least diversity (only two species were isolated) with 4 isolates being Parabacteroides distasonis and 1 isolate being Bifidobacterium adolscentis. The isolates from samples S1 and S3 belonged to genus Bacteriodes, Clostridium, Parabacteroides; while Megasphaera elsdenii was isolated from S3 only (age56).This suggests that there is difference in culturable anaerobic bacteria diversity with age within individuals in a family.

We want our customers to be satisfied with the quality of our products. If a product is damaged during shipping or you are unhappy with the product, simply let us know within 14 days after delivery, and we will try to resolve the situation to your satisfaction in a way that is fair to both parties. We are a small company and try to do our best for each situation. Please contact us if you have any questions prior to purchasing.NOT SATISFIED

If you receive the order and you are not satisfied with it, you can return the merchandise in original packaging within 14 days along with the receipt. Once we receive your package, we will refund the amount charged of the items returned. Unfortunately, we cannot refund the shipping costs, unless the product is damaged or defective.ORDER REFUSED

Chief John Smith[a] (likely born between 1822 and 1826, though allegedly as early as 1780; died February 6, 1922) was an Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indian who lived in the area of Cass Lake, Minnesota. In 1920, two years before his death, he appeared as the main feature in a motion picture exhibition that toured the US, featuring aged Native Americans.

By filling this knowledge gap, we aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and cognitive functioning after controlling for potential confounders among older adults aged 60 years and over using the propensity score matching (PSM) based on the data from a large national-level Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI). In addition, considering the potential effect that gender differences pose on both cognition and physical activity, gender differences in this relationship were analyzed. Based on the abovementioned background, we developed a conceptual framework has been summarised in Fig. 1.

A proportion of 24.6% of older men and 12.0% of older women in the current study were found to be frequently physically active. The higher prevalence of vigorous physical activities in older adults may be explained by the definition of physical activity (vigorous) in this paper which includes the farm-related activities. A large proportion of older population in rural areas of the country are engaged in agricultural labor50. Another study based on the data from the LASI pilot survey, using the same definition of vigorous activity, has estimated that 27% of the participants were engaged in vigorous activities37. On the other hand, the significant gender difference in the prevalence of physical activity may be attributed to the fact that traditionally, in India, men have been considered as income earners while women are confined to the household. Similarly, studies based in other developing countries reported gender differences in the prevalence of vigorous physical activities51,52. The previous study reported that the prevalence of vigorous activities during the farming season was nearly 33% and highlighted the existing gender differences by reporting that vigorous activities among the male farmers were greater than female farmers irrespective of the season of farming52.

Our results suggest that older adults who engaged in physical activity have higher cognitive functioning score compared with older adults without physical activity. The finding is consistent with previous reviews of observational studies that have concluded that interventions that promote higher levels of physical activity in old age are associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline14,53,54. Evidence also suggest that regular physical activity through management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity may protect the cognitive abilities and reduce the risk of late-life dementia55. Several studies based on cross-sectional/ prospective cohort design as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown similar findings that suggest a significantly larger hippocampal or grey matter volumes and associated better spatial memory and improved cognitive functioning among physically fit older individuals compared with their unfit counterparts56,57. Hence, exercise and physical activity interventions for older adults may help ameliorate age-related deficits in cognitive functioning by providing a better executive functioning and appropriate decision making, that in turn result in avoiding adverse life habits in later years of life.

Similar restrictions would be applied to foreign-flag tonnage when engaged in handling "EXIM/coastal cargo" at Indian ports or providing maritime services in the Indian EEZ. In addition, any foreign ship competing for Indian cargo would have to be less than 20 years old.

Doshi is the latest of a number of significant architects and designers who have recently passed away. In December, Japanese Pritzker Prize winner Arata Isozaki passed away aged 91 and punk designer Vivienne Westwood died aged 81.

LASI wave 1 is a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of 65,562 middle and older adults aged 45 and above. We first calculated the socioeconomic, demographic and geographical characteristics of cancer survivors (per 100,000 population). We later estimated the adjusted odds of poor health, sleep problems, depressive symptoms, activities of living limitations (ADL and IADL), and hospitalisation of cancer survivors using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Middle-aged and older cancer survivors, particularly those who underwent cancer diagnosis or treatment in the past 2 years, are at a significantly higher risk of experiencing poor self-reported health and other health challenges, suggesting the need for an integrated healthcare approach.

The present analysis is based on the first wave of the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) survey, a nationally representative data of 72,250 middle-aged and older adults aged 45 and above and their spouses irrespective of their age [11]. The survey was conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, India, in collaboration with Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH), USA and the University of Southern California (USC) USA. The LASI was approved by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), and informed consent, either oral or signed, was obtained from all the respondents. The LASI survey has collected data from 35 states/Union Territories (UTs) of India except for Sikkim. The LASI survey has adopted a multi-stage stratified area probability cluster sampling design within each state.

In this study, middle-aged and older adult cancer survivors reported poor physical, functional, mental health and sleep problems. Cancer survivors who had either a cancer diagnosis or treatment in the past 2 years preceding the survey had higher odds of reporting poor health status across all the indicators. Our findings are similar to studies carried out in other high-income studies. For instance, a study based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) found that older adults diagnosed with cancer in England reported a higher likelihood of poor self-rated health, low life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and functional limitations [6, 7]. The results are also similar to a study conducted in China which found higher functional limitations and chronic diseases among cancer survivors [8]. Few systematic reviews among the adult population have observed a higher level of depression, anxiety and suicidal symptoms among cancer survivors [28, 29]. Our findings on sleep problems are similar to other studies, including a study published on cancer survivors in the US in 2019 [30]. These results hold implications for healthcare systems in India. As cancer incidence is increasing, it is essential to understand the medium and long-term effects, including the psychological needs and to provide appropriate health interventions to improve the health and wellbeing of those living with and beyond cancer [31]. 59ce067264


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